Grade 11 Biology Exam Review

Diversity of Living Things

 

Life

 

  1. Homeostasis
  1. Metabolism
  2. Growth and repair
  3. Response to stimuli
  4. Reproduction
  5. Composed of 1 or more cells
  6. Contain genetic material

 

Biodiversity

  1. Species diversity
  2. Genetic diversity
  3. Ecosystem diversity
  4. Habitat diversity
  5. Cultural diversity
  1. It’s a life support system
  2. Provides economic services and products
  3. Spiritual and cultural inspiration
  4. Intrinsic worth

At Risk Species

 

 

 

Taxonomy

 

History of Taxonomy

 

Species

Binomial Nomenclature

 

 

 

Seven Levels of Classification

 

History of Kingdoms

 

 

Kingdoms

 

Phylogeny

 

 

 

 

 

 

Monera and Protista

 

Kingdom Monera

Introduction

 

  1. Single celled
  2. Prokaryotes
  3. DNA made up of one chromosome
  4. Most have cell walls
  5. Reproduce asexually through fission or budding (no mitosis)

 

 

 

 

  1. Cell shape
  1. Cell arrangement
  1. Reaction to a purple indicator stain (a dye made of crystal violet and iodine)
  1. Method of nutrition
  1. Method of respiration

 

 

Reproduction

  1. Binary fission
    1. All bacteria can reproduce asexually by this method
    2. Can divide every 10-2o minutes in ideal conditions
    3. Chromosomes duplicate and then divide into two cells
    4. This is much simpler than mitosis
    5. Conjugation
      1. Used when survival conditions are not ideal
      2. Is a type of sexual reproduction
      3. Two bacterial cells connect by long protein bridges
      4. Plasmid (DNA) transfers from one cell to the other
      5. The receiving cell undergoes binary fission
      6. Helps change the genetic makeup and increase survival rates
      7. Endospore formation
        1. Used by gram-positive bacteria to outlast extremely unfavorable conditions
        2. A thick wall is produced around DNA and cytoplasm
        3. Spores are resistant to high temperatures, freezing, toxicity, radiation, etc.
        4. They can remain dormant for long periods of time

Eubacteria versus Archaebacteria

 

 

Eubacteria

Archae

Cell Wall

Has peptidoglycan, which makes the cell wall rigid

Lacks peptidoglycan, which makes the cell wall rigid

Nutrition

Some are pathogens

No known pathogens

Shape

Round, rod and spiral

Some can also be square

Habitat

Moderate environments

Extreme environments

Reproduction

Binary fission, conjugation

Also can reproduce by budding

 

Archaebacteria

Eubacteria

 

Cyanobacteria

 

Kingdom Protista

Introduction

 

  1. Primary producers in most ecosystems and base of food pyramid
  2. Act as decomposers to help cycle nutrients in water and soil
  3. Phytoplankton photosynthesis in oceans produce about 66% of the oxygen we breathe
  4. Protist activity in the oceans can even help regulate the climate and “make rain”
  5. Due to climate change and ocean acidification, we are losing about 1% of marine protist populations per year

 

Plant-Like Protists

Animal-like Protists (Protozoa)

 

 

Fungi-like Protists

 

Kingdom Eukarya

 

Development of Eukaryotic Cells

 

  1. Invagination (infolding)
    1. The nuclear membrane and ER may have evolved from infolding of outer cell membrane
    2. Originally, this may have been an adaption that allowed more efficient exchange of materials by increasing surface area
    3. Wrinkly cells were better adapted than perfectly smooth cells
    4. Endosymbiosis
      1. Endosymbiosis à Organisms living inside of one another in a mutually beneficial, symbiotic manner
      2. One cells engulfs a different type of cell, similar to endocytosis in amoeba
      3. All eukaryotic cell organelles were the ancestors of once free-living prokaryotes
      4. The bacteria were not digested but performed aerobic respiration and provided excess energy to host
      5. Endosymbiotic bacteria started to reproduce independently within its new home
      6. Mitochondria and chloroplasts are strong evidence for this
        1. i.     Double Membrane
        2. ii.     Outer membrane is similar to membrane of other eukaryotes, while internal is similar to prokaryotes
        3. iii.     Have their own internal chromosomes which don’t match host DNA
        4. iv.     Chromosomes are similar to prokaryotic genes
        5. v.     Organelles reproduce independently within cell through binary fission

 

Mitochondrial Eve

 

Fungi

  1. Fungi evolved before plants
  2. Heterotrophs
  3. No roots, seeds or true tissues
  4. No cellulose (they have chitin) or starch molecules
  5. Can have many nuclei per cell
  6. None reproduce by seed
  7. Few or no storage molecules

 

  1. Cap à houses and protects spore-containing gills
  2. Stalk/stem à elevates the spores for dispersal
  3. Gills à produces billions of reproductive spores
  4. Spores à microscopic seeds
  1. Hypha à microscopic branching filament
  2. Mycelium à network of hyphae filaments

 

  1. Chytridiomycota (water moulds)
  2. Zygomycota (bread moulds)
  3. Ascomycota (yeast)
  4. Basidiomycota (mushrooms)
  5. Deuteromycota (imperfect fungi à athlete’s foot, yeast infections, etc)

 

  1. Food source
  2. Fungal fermentation makes alcohol
  3. Biological best control
  4. Bioremediation of toxic waste
  5. Medicine (penicillin, antibiotics)
  6. Cycle nutrients
  7. Purify water
  8. Balance ecosystems
  9. Form symbiotic relationships

 

  1. Mycorrhizae à Fungi obtains sugar from plants that require mycelium to absorb nutrients
  2. Lichens à Symbiotic between algae (photosynthesis) and fungus (produces carbon dioxide and protection)

 

Plantae

Introduction

 

Four Major Groups of Plants

  1. Byrophytes (spore producing)
  1. Pteridophytes (spore producing)
  1. Gymnosperms (seed producing)
  1. Angiosperms (seed producing)

 

Kingdom Animalia

 

 

  1. Presence of backbone
    1. Invertebrate
    2. Vertebrate
  2. Symmetry of body
    1. Asymmetrical
    2. Radial symmetry
    3. Bilateral symmetry
  3. Segmentation of body
  4. Presence of tissues and organs
  5. Presence of a coelom (organ cavity)

 

  1. 1. Porifera (sponges)
    1. No tissues
    2. Irregular
    3. Asexual/sexual reproduction
    4. 2. Cnidaria (jellyfish, corals, anemones)
      1. Tissue development
      2. Radial symmetry
      3. Sessile or motile
      4. Marine
      5. 3. Platyhelminthes (flatworms)
        1. Least complex
        2. Flattened, unsegmented
        3. No internal body cavity
        4. 4. Nematoda (roundworms)
          1. Hookworm, pinworm, heartworm
          2. Cylidnrical, tapered at the end
          3. 5. Annelida (segmented worms)
            1. Segmented (duh) and a coelom
            2. Earthworms, leeches, etc.
            3. 6. Rotifera (wheel animals)
              1. Mainly freshwater, some marine
              2. Smallest animals
              3. Rotifers
              4. 7. Mollusca (shelled snails, slugs, clams, oysters, squids, octopi)
                1. Coelom
                2. Appendages
                3. Support structure (external or internal shell)
                4. 8. Arthropoda (exoskeleton animals)
                  1. Segmented body, jointed appendages
                  2. All insects have wings, btw
                  3. Complex sensory systems including antennae
                  4. Largest phylum in the animal kingdom!
                  5. 9. Ehinodermata (starfish, sea cucumber, urchin)
                    1. 5 sided radial symmetry
                    2. Endoskeletons, appendages
                    3. No brains or respiratory systems
                    4. Marine

10. Chordata

  1. Three subgroups but we focus on vertebrata, which is 95% of all chordate

 

Chordata

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Viruses

 

 

 

 

Virus Characteristics

Virus Replication

 

  1. Bacteriophage attaches to the appropriate cell wall surface.
  2. Bacteriophage tail releases an enzyme to dissolve the wall of the bacterium.Viral DNA is injected into the cell
  3. Viral DNA takes over host cell activity, destroying its DNA. Viral DNA relicates.
  4. Copies of viral DNA and capsid are assembled into new viruses. They outer shell of bacterium breaks down (the cytoplasm of host cell releases a digestive enzyme).
  5. New viruses infect other cells

 

 

Viral Diversity

 

Virus Prevention

 

Virus Phylogeny

  1. Viral ancestors were cellular organisms that evolve to become parasitic
    1. Why don’t they resemble any of them?
    2. Viruses evolved from complex, self-replicating molecules that predate cellular life
      1. How did they replicate without a live host?
      2. Viruses derived from detached fragments of the genetic material of cellular organisms
        1. Where do their protein capsids come from?

 

 

Plants

Introduction

Kingdom Plantae Characteristics

 

 

Root Systems

 

 

 

Shoot System

 

 

 

 

 

Leaves

 

  1. Epidermis à Outermost layer of cells, which contain the cuticle and stomata, allowing light to enter
  2. Cuticle à Waxy upper layer of leaf which acts as a protective barrier and prevents water loss
  3. Stoma (pl. stomata) à O2 and CO2 enter and exit the leaf through these pores located on the leaf underside
  4. Guard cells à Specialized cells that surround stomata which control stomata opening
    1. Gas can photosynthesize by day but close at night/extreme weather to prevent water loss
    2. During the day, ions move into guard cells which creates hypertonic situations
    3. This forces water to enter the guard cells via osmosis, causing guard cells to swell up and pull away from each other
    4. The stoma then opens up to let in light
    5. During the night, ions move out of guard cells
    6. This causes guard cells to shrink
    7. Thus the stoma closes
    8. Veins à Vascular bundles containing xylem and phloem
    9. Palisade cells à A layer of closely packed, elongated cells beneath the upper epidermis, containing chloroplasts
    10. Spongy cells à A layer of loosely packed cells located under palisade cells, with airspaces allowing for gas exchange
    11. Vascular tissue à Food and water conducting tissues

 

Plant Reproduction

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Factors Affecting Plant Growth

 

 

 

  1. Plant substrate
  2. Source of air for root cells
  3. Retains moisture

 

  1. Carbon
  2. Hydrogen
  3. Oxygen
  4. Magnesium
  5. Potassium
  6. Phosphorus
  7. Nitrogen
  8. Calcium
  9. Sulfur

 

Tropism

 

 

  1. Auxins
    1. Stimulate plant cell elongation and growth in apical bud (upwards growth)
    2. Inhibit lateral bud growth
    3. Can help plants orient themselves towards light or away from gravity
    4. Produced on the shady side of stem
    5. This side elongates while the other side stays the same, causing it to bend towards the light

 

  1. This can be removed to make the plant growth thicker/bushier
  2. This can be used in herbicides to make weeds outgrow their food reserves and die

 

  1. Gibberellins
    1. Stimulates cell division and elongation, especially in shoots
    2. Causes stems to “bolt” and grow rapidly right before flowering (to elevate them for pollination)

 

  1. Sprayed on seeds to stimulate germination
  2. Sprayed on crops to promote seed and fruit production

 

  1. Cytokinins
    1. Stimulate cells to divide (cytokinesis)
    2. Helps with lateral growth, especially leaf mesophyll growth
    3. Helps slow down cell aging by inhibiting protein breakdown

 

  1. Sprayed on produce to prevent spoilage
  2. Used to rapidly grow plant tissue for labs

 

  1. Ethylene
    1. Stimulates fruit ripening
    2. Gas that’s released externally (rather than internal hormone chemical)
    3. Helps attract more animals to come eat their fruit because all of them riped at the same time

 

  1. Can be re-applied externally after fruits are sold
  2. Fruit in transport is stored in well-ventilated trucks with ethylene-absorbing filters

 

  1. Abscisic Acid
    1. Growth inhibitor
    2. Promotes cell dormancy in times of stress (such as season changes)
    3. Closes stomata to reduce water loss, leaves turn yellow and fall off for winter

 

  1. Sprayed on plants before shipping to minimize transportation stress
  2. Sprayed with gibberellins upon arrival to reverse plant dormancy

 

Ecological Succession

Fertilizers

 

 

 

 

Food Plants and the Green Revolution

Fuels, Fibres and Wood Plants

Medicinal and Chemical Plant Products

 

  1. Administration
  2. Delivery
  3. Performance
  4. Elimination

 

 

 

Pesticides

 

 

Digestive System

The chemicals of life include:

  1. Vitamins and minerals
    1. Usually found in complex chemicals
    2. Help in chemical reactions
    3. Fats or lipids
      1. a. Energy storage compound
      2. b. Structural component of cell membranes
      3. Carbohydrates
        1. a. Primary energy source for cells
        2. b. Structural material of plant cell walls
        3. Proteins
          1. a. Structural and functional components of the cell
          2. b. Composed of amino acids
          3. Nucleic acids
            1. a. Genetic material that regulates cell activity
            2. b. Composed of sugar, phosphate, and nitrogenous bases
            3. c. Some transport energy
            4. d. Not a compound

  1. Carbohydrates
  2. Proteins
  3. Fats

 

  1. Carbohydrates
    1. Carbohydrate à Nutrient made up of a single sugar molecule or many sugar molecules, with only Carbon, Oxygen and Hydrogen
    2. Human body cannot make them
    3. Our carbohydrates come from plants

 

  1. d. Monosaccharides à single sugar molecule
    1. i.     Glucose
    2. ii.     Fructose
  2. Disaccharides à Two sugar molecules
    1. i.     Maltose – used for beer
    2. ii.     Sucrose - sugaaaaar
    3. iii.     Lactose – used in milk
  3. Polysaccharides à Many sugar molecules
    1. i.     Starch – large carb molecule used by plants for energy storage
    2. ii.     Cellulose – cell walls, cannot be digested by humans
    3. iii.     Glycogen – used for carb storage in animals

 

  1. Lipids
    1. Divided into three groups
      1. i.     Fats, oil, waxes
      2. ii.     Phospholipids
      3. iii.     Steroids
  2. Unlike carbohydrates, lipids are difficult to break down, which is why you feel more full with lipids
  3. Contain twice the energy as carbs or proteins
  4. Made up of C, H and O but in different proportions
  5. Are not soluble in water
  6. Lipids store energy so if their glygocen stores are full, excess carbohydrates are converted into fat

 

  1. Saturated fats à Only single bonds between Carbon atoms because they have maximum hydrogen           
    1. i.     Usually animal fats and firm
  2. Unsaturated fats à Double bonds between carbons which means hydrogen are missing
    1. i.     Plant oils and liquid
  3. Waxes à insoluble in water so they’re good for