Significant Events of Canada's Identity

What is Social Justice?

- Everyone is treated equally

- Equal Opportunities to succeed

- Human rights à Everyone must agree to work together

- Equal input n a safe community


Significant forces that have shaped Canadian Identity



- Aging Population

- Expected 30% of Canadians to be senior citizens by 2056

- Will Strain Social Services


- Immigration has increased

- 41% of immigrants are now Asian or Middle Eastern


- Amount of people in urban areas has increased nearly 40%


- The growth in population for the aboriginal people has been very high

- Trend expected to continue through 2017

- Higher than average birth rate

- Also due to more people identifying themselves as Métis or Aboriginal


Social Forces and Identity

- Canada has accepted immigrants for a long time, also helps with economic growth

- Point system is used to evaluate which immigrants will be allowed in

- Higher points for speaking French, English, having a job offer, advanced education, etc.

- Helps refugees come to Canada


- Some believe that the immigration system is too long, makes highly qualified people wait too long, and doesn’t help trades workers immigrate at a time when many Canadian companies need them.


- Ethnic and Cultural diversity has become a highlight of Canadian society due to our large multicultural society

- In 2006, our population belonged to over 200 different ethnic origins

- Government policies have been put in place to develop the idea that Canada is pluralistic.

- Composed of people from many different backgrounds who are all equal


- Canada’s Charter of rights and freedoms protects the rights of those with disabilities

- However nearly 60% of those with disabilities are out of jobs


- Canadian woman made great advances in the struggle for equal rights

- Woman have achieved equal pay for equal work in many professions



Cultural Forces and Identity

- Some worry that Canada’s culture and identity to too heavily influenced by the USA

- To promote history of Canada and our culture the Department of Canadian History was created in 1993

- One of the Canadian Broadcast rules is that every network must broadcast a certain number of hours of Canadian TV.



Other Influences
- Canadian culture is threatened by influences from other countries, especially US

Official language minorities
- Even though French and English are official languages, French is a minority outside of Quebec
- Francophone population gradually declining (only 22%)


Aboriginal peoples and self determination
- Before Europeans came in 1600s, aboriginals enjoyed self determination (power to control own affairs)
- As settlers flooded in, Aboriginals became a minority
- Aboriginals’ right to self-determination was limited as governments forced them to assimilate
- In 1982, aboriginal and treaty rights were given again in Canada’s Constitution

The Oka Crisis

- Constitutional victory didn’t end struggles of Aboriginals
- In 1990, village of Oka, Quebec, decided to expand golf course
- Expansion was to take place on Mohawks’ reserve

- To stop expansion, Mohawk protesters set up a barricade
- Eventually, federal government bought disputed land to return back to Mohawks

Royal Commission on Aboriginal Peoples

- Due to Oka Crisis, a royal commission was set up in 1991
- Goal of royal commission was to figure out what the foundations of a fair and honorable relationship between Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal people of Canada were
- A report was published which urged Canadians to view First Nations, Inuit and Métis in a radically different way – as nations with rights to govern themselves in partnership with Canada
- Canadian government and Aboriginal peoples have reached important agreements:
- 1998 Nisga’a Final Agreement – provides Nisga’a of BC with degree of self-government
- Creation of Nunavut in 1999 – provides Inuit with degree of self-government
- Creation of Regional Government of Nunavik in Quebec in 2007 – gives Nunavik a degree of self-government

Sovereignty of Quebec

- Francophones in Quebec wanted to work toward sovereignty for Quebec in order to maintain their cultural identity
- Sovereignty movement forced Aboriginals of Quebec to decide whether to support separation or remain part of Canada
- They decided that if Quebec separated from Canada, they would separate from Quebec
- The Sovereignty Vote:
- Quebecois voted to stay in Canada by 50.5% (WON!)
- Quebecois voted to separate by 49.4%
- In 2006, Stephen Harper passed a motion recognizing Quebecois as a nation within a united Canada


From Peacekeeping to Peace Making


- Canada is often credited as being a peacekeeping nation

- A considerably important part of Canada’s identity

- Canadian have been maintaining a good focus on peacekeeping

- However many missions have failed due to the changing nature of peacekeeping

- Civil wars have also affected Canada’s peacekeeping missions

- Many of the failed missions caused people to suggest that Canada abandon peacekeeping

- The increase of Canadian troops in Afghanistan in 2003 due to the USA decision to invade Iraq caused the larges amount of Canadian forces deaths since the Korean War

- Canada was there to rebuild Afghanistan and to fight the Taliban


An Aging Demographic


- The senior population is expected to be very great due to the amount of Baby Boomers

- This means increased demands on health care

- A change in the labour market


Economic Troubles


- 2008: USA markets drop and aim towards an economic depression

- Canadian markets are tied with the American markets in many ways so the Canadian markets dropped as well

- Ripple effect of unemployment, decreased spending, etc.


Sagging Auto Industry


- When the 2008 economic crisis occurred, auto markets in Canada and the USA fell

- 85% of cars built in Canada vehicles are exported to the USA, when demand dropped, manufacturing dropped, and workers were laid off


Alberta Oil Boom comes to an End.


- When the 2008 economic crisis occurred the price of oil went down drastically from the $100/barrel it reached

- When this decrease occurred, 16,000 jobs were lost, and the oil sands became unprofitable